You are here

Cyclophorus perdix perdix

Land Snails (Terrestrial Gastropoda)

By Ayu Savitri Nurinsiyah & Bernhard Hausdorf, CeNak Hamburg, Germany

There are approximately 24,000 described land snail species worldwide and it has been estimated that there are probably 11,000 to 40,000 undescribed species (Lydeard et al., 2004). Terrestrial mollusc species tend to have very small ranges, sensitive to changes associated with human disturbance, and are prone to extinction by habitat destruction (Schilthuizen et al., 2005; Douglas et al., 2013). Thus, land snails can be used as environmental indicators (Nurinsiyah et al., 2016). It has been estimated that already 7% of the land snails became extinct (Régnier et al., 2015).

In Java, 209 land snail species are known. Among them, 69 species and 17 subspecies are endemic to Java, and 12 are introduced species (van Benthem Jutting, 1948, 1950, 1952; Loosjes, 1953; Butot, 1955; de Winter, 1983, 1998; Dharma, 1992, 2007; Whitten et al., 1997; Vermeulen and Whitten, 1998; Heryanto, 2011; Nurinsiyah, 2015; Nurinsiyah et al., 2016).

Most land snails play an important role in the ecosystem as detritivores. Some are carnivorous like the Streptaxidae, which are represented on Java only by an introduced species, Gulella bicolor (Hutton, 1834).

Our survey in the Halimun-Salak National Park in 2015 resulted in 44 land snail species, of which 21 were first records for the park. Additional 23 land snail species have been previously recorded in Halimun-Salak National Park (Heryanto et al., 2003). One of the species discovered by our survey proved to be new to science.


  • Dharma, B. 1992. Siput dan Kerang Indonesia (Indonesian Shells) II. Christa Hemmen, Wiesbaden.
  • Dharma, B. 2007. Report on fossil Amphidromus and description of new species and new subspecies of recent and fossil Amphidromus from Indonesia (Gastropoda, Pulmonata: Camaenidae). Schriften Malakozool., 23: 45–78.
  • Dharma, B. 2015. A new species of Landouria Godwin-Austen 1918 from Jawa, Indonesia (Gastropoda, Bradybaenidae). Schriften Malakozool. 28: 7–12.
  • Douglas, D.D., Brown, D.R., Pederson, N. 2013. Land snail diversity can reflect degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Ecosphere, 4 (2): 1-14.
  • Heryanto, Ristiyanti, M.M., Munandar, A., Susilowati, P. 2003. Keong dari Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun, Sebuah Buku Panduan Lapangan. Biodiversity Conservation Project.
  • Heryanto. 2011. Land Snails of Java, A field guide. LIPI Press, Jakarta.
  • Loosjes, F.E. 1953. Monograph of the Indo-Australian Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae, Phaedusinae). Beaufortia, 31: 1–226, photo 1–4, pl. 1, 1 map.
  • Lydeard, C., Cowie, R., Ponder, W.F., Bogan, A.E., Bouchet, P., Clark, S.A., Cummings, K.S., Frest, T.J., Gargominy, O., Herbert, D.G., Hershler, R., Perez, K.E., Roth, B., Seddon, M., Strong, E.E., Thompson, F.G. 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. Biosci., 54: 321-330.
  • Nurinsiyah, A.S. 2015. Land snail fauna of the Sukolilo karst in Java (Indonesia). American Conchologist, 43: 30–32.
  • Nurinsiyah, A.S., Fauzia, H., Hennig, C. and Hausdorf, B. 2016. Native and introduced land snail species as ecological indicators in different land use types in Java. Ecological Indicators, 70: 557–565.
  • Régnier, C., Achaz, G., Lambert, A., Cowie, R.H., Bouchet, P., Fontaine, B. 2015. Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. PNAS, 112 (25): 7761-7766
  • Schilthuizen, M., Liew, T.S., Elahan, B., Lackman-Ancrenaz, I. 2005. Effect of karst forest degradation on pulmonate and prosobranch land snail communities in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Conservation Biology, 19 (3): 949-954.
  • van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1948. Systematic studies on the non-marine Mollusca of the Indo-Australian archipelago. I. Critical Revision of the Javanese Pulmonate land-shells of the families Hydrocenidae, Helicinidae, Cyclophoridae, Pupinidae and Cochlostomatidae. Treubia, 19: 539–604.
  • van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1950. Systematic studies on the non-marine Mollusca of the Indo-Australian archipelago. II. Critical Revision of the Javanese Pulmonate land-shells of the families Helicarionidae, Pleurodontidae, Fruticicolidae and Streptaxidae. Treubia, 20: 381–505.
  • van Benthem Jutting, W.S.S. 1952. Systematic studies on the non-marine Mollusca of the Indo-Australian archipelago. III. Critical Revision of the Javanese Pulmonate land-shells of the families Ellobiidae to Limacidae, with an Appendix on Helicarionidae. Treubia, 21: 291–435.
  • Vermeulen. J.J., Whitten, A.J. 1998. Fauna Malesiana Guide to the Land Snails of Bali. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
  • Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R.E., Afiff, S.A. 1997. The Ecology of Java and Bali. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.
  • Winter, A.J. de. 1983. Euphaedusa cumingiana (L. Pfeiffer) (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) new to the fauna of Java (Indonesia). Basteria, 47: 59–60.
  • Winter, A.J. de., Vermeulen, J.J. 1998. A first record of Truncatellina (Pulmonata: Vertiginidae) from SE. Asia: Truncatellina cf. insulivaga (Pilsbry & Hirase) on Java, Indonesia. Basteria, 62: 269–271.